IntroductionCritically ill patients with respiratory failure undergoing bronchoscopy have an increased risk of hypoxaemia-related complications. Previous studies have shown that in awake, hypoxaemic patients non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is helpful in preventing gas exchange deterioration during bronchoscopy. An alternative and increasingly used means of oxygen delivery is its application via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study was conducted to compare HFNC with NIV in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. Methods: Prospective randomised trial randomising 40 critically ill patients with hypoxaemic respiratory failure to receive either NIV or HFNC during bronchoscopy in the intensive care unit. Results: After the initiation of NIV and HFNC, oxygen levels were significantly higher in the NIV group compared to the HFNC group. Two patients were unable to proceed to bronchoscopy after the institution of HFNC due to progressive hypoxaemia. During bronchoscopy, one patient on HFNC deteriorated due to intravenous sedation requiring non-invasive ventilatory support. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in all other patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding heart rate, mean arterial pressure and respiratory rate. 3 patients in the NIV group and 1 patient in the HFNC group were intubated within 24?hours after the end of bronchoscopy (p?=?0.29). Conclusions: The application of NIV was superior to HFNC with regard to oxygenation before, during and after bronchoscopy in patients with moderate to severe hypoxaemia. In patients with stable oxygenation under HFNC, subsequent bronchoscopy was well tolerated.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01870765 (registered 30 May 2013).
Background: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by a complete or partial mismatch between genetic sex and phenotypic sex, which results in infertility because of the absence of the azoospermia factor region in the long arm of Y chromosome.Case presentationWe report a case of a 14-year-old male with microorchidism and mild bilateral gynecomastia who referred to our hospital because of abnormal gender characteristics. The patient was treated for congenital scrotal type hypospadias at the age of 4 years. Semen analysis indicated azoospermia by centrifugation of ejaculate. Levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were elevated, while that of testosterone was low and those of estradiol and prolactin were normal. The results of gonadal biopsy showed hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules, but there was no evidence of spermatogenic cells. Karyotype analysis of the patient confirmed 46,XX karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was negative. Molecular analysis revealed that the SRY gene and the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc regions were absent. No mutation was detected in the coding region and exon/intron boundaries of the RSPO1, DAX1, SOX9, SOX3, SOX10, ROCK1, and DMRT genes, and no copy number variation in the whole genome sequence was found. Conclusion: This study adds a new case of SRY-negative 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development and further verifies the view that the absence of major regions from the Y chromosome leads to an incomplete masculine phenotype, abnormal hormone levels and infertility. To date, the mechanisms for induction of testicular tissue in 46,XX SRY-negative patients remain unknown, although other genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of sex determination and differentiation.
Background: Relevant benefits of adjunctive medication of antibiotica after conventional root surface debridement in terms of enhanced pocket depth (PD) reduction have been shown. However, means and standard deviations of enhanced reductions are difficult to translate into clinical relevant treatment outcomes such as pocket resolution or avoidance of additional surgical interventions. Accordingly, the aim of this systematic review was to calculate odds ratios for relevant cut-off values of PD after mechanical periodontal treatment with and without antibiotics, specifically the combination of amoxicilline and metronidazol, from published studies. As clinical relevant cut-off values "pocket closure" for PD 5 mm was 0 for both groups, no odds ratio could be calculated for persistent needs for surgery. Generally, studies showed a moderate to high quality and large heterogeneity regarding treatment protocol, dose of antibiotic medication and maintenance. Conclusion: With the performed statistical approach, a clear benefit in terms of an enhanced chance for pocket closure by co-administration of the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to non-surgical mechanical periodontal therapy has been shown. However, data calculation failed to show a benefit regarding the possible avoidance of surgical interventions.
Background: Climateric is a phase of women's life marked by the transition from the reproductive to the non-reproductive period. In addition to overall weight gain, the menopause is also associated with the increase of abdominal fat. We used The Healthy Eating Index as a summary measure to evaluate the major components and the quality of women's diet after the onset of the menopause. This study aims at examining the association between the quality of the diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 215 postmenopausal women attending a public outpatient clinic. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to assess the food intake and to establish the Healthy Eating Index. Diets were then classified as appropriate diet (>80 points), diet "requiring improvement" (80-51 points), and poor diet (<51 points). Cardiometabolic risk factors included abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The Fisher's exact test was utilized for the Statistical analysis. Results: The analysis of the food intake showed that the average daily intake of lipids (36.7%) and sodium (2829.9 mg) were above the recommended. Only 8.8% of the women performed moderate or intense physical exercises on a regular basis. The diet was considered poor in 16.3%, "requiring improvement" in 82.8%, and appropriate for only 0.9% of the women. The study detected increased waist circumference in 92.1% of the participants. The mean concentration of triglycerides was of 183.3 mg/dl, and 130.7 mg/dl for cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein). Conclusion: Women consume a low quality diet, possibly due to the low intake of vegetables and fruits and excessive consumption of sodium. These inappropriate eating habits are associated with and, have a negative impact on the cardiometabolic risk factors such as abdominal obesity.
Policymaking is both an art and a science. It is a long process of research, debate and consensus (where possible). The elaboration of the Framework for Responsible Sharing of Genomic and Health-Related Data serves as an illustration of this process.
IntroductionLungs and liver are the most common sites of colorectal cancer metastases after regional lymph nodes, but metastases to unusual sites are reported. Heterotopic bone formation in soft tissues from colorectal cancer is a rare metastatic occurrence.Case presentationWe present the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian man affected by colon adenocarcinoma with multiple soft tissue metastases visualized by magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan and scintigraphic bone scan. We suppose that these findings can be due to the fact that the tracer is concentrated in the ossification nidus of soft metastases. Conclusions: Our experience suggests that, in the presence of colon adenocarcinoma, a bone scan could be a sensible tool to highlight bone lesions or heterotopic bone nidus in soft tissues and that any subcutaneous lesion should be resected to avoid underestimating a potential malignancy.
Background: Health interview surveys are important data sources for empirical research in public health. However, the diversity of methods applied, such as in the mode of data collection, make it difficult to compare results across surveys, time, or countries. The aim of this study was to explore whether the prevalence rates of health-related indicators amongst adults differ when self-administered paper mail questionnaires (SAQ-Paper), self-administered web surveys (SAQ-Web), and computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) are used for data collection in a health survey. Methods: Data were obtained from a population-based mixed-mode health interview survey of adults in Germany carried out within the 'German Health Update' (GEDA) study. Data were collected either by SAQ-Paper (n = 746), SAQ-Web (n = 414), or CATI (n = 411). Predictive margins from logistic regression models were used to estimate the prevalence rates of chronic conditions, subjective health, mental health, psychosocial factors, and health behaviours, adjusted for the socio-demographic characteristics of each mode group. Results: Socio-demographic characteristics were found to differ significantly between study participants who responded by SAQ-Paper, SAQ-Web, and CATI. Crude prevalence rates for health-related indicators also showed significant variation across all three survey modes. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors though, significant differences in prevalence rates between the two self-administered modes (SAQ-Paper and SAQ-Web) were found in only 2 out of the 19 health-related indicators studied. The differences between CATI and the two self-administered modes remained significant however, especially for indicators of mental and psychosocial health and self-reported sporting activity. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that prevalence rates obtained from health interview surveys can vary with the mode of data collection, primarily between interviewer and self-administered modes. Hence, the type of survey mode used should be considered when comparing results from different health surveys. Mixing self-administered modes, such as paper-based questionnaires and web surveys, may be a combination to minimize mode differences in mixed-mode health interview surveys.
IntroductionWe describe the long-term effectiveness and tolerability of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum with bilateral macular choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks.Case presentationA 54-year-old Caucasian man with history of heart disease presented with visual loss in his right eye. An examination revealed choroidal neovascularization and reduced visual acuity, while no abnormalities were seen in his left eye. He was diagnosed with angioid streaks associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Off-label treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab once a month initiated in December 2007 was discontinued after 3 months due to lack of efficacy. In September 2008, the patient reported reduced visual acuity in his left eye and an examination revealed changes. Left eye treatment was initiated in October 2008 with a loading dose (three consecutive monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab 0.5mg/50muL) followed by 0.5mg/50muL followed by treatment as needed until May 2014. After 21 ranibizumab injections, an examination revealed angioid streaks and choroidal neovascularization in both eyes. His right eye showed retinal layer deterioration with outer limiting membrane and photoreceptor inner/outer segment junction involvement. His left eye had a smaller foveal scar, with other areas preserved. Visual acuity was stable in his treated left eye, but had deteriorated in his right eye. Ranibizumab treatment was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. Conclusions: In the present case, an as-needed regimen of ranibizumab after an initial loading dose, achieved maintenance of visual function and was well tolerated over a period of almost 6 years in a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and high cardiovascular risk. As anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are associated with increased risk of systemic effects, particularly arterial thromboembolic events, following intravenous administration, the absence of serious thromboembolic or cardiovascular adverse events throughout the 6-year treatment period is particularly encouraging considering our patient's high cardiovascular risk status.
Background: Workplace stress in Australia and other western countries has been steadily increasing over the past decade. It can be observed not only in terms of increased compensation claims but also costs due to absenteeism, loss of productivity at work and reduced psychological and physiological health and well-being. Given the cost and pervasive effects of stress in the modern workforce, time efficient and cost-effective interventions capable of reducing occupational stress (or strain) and burnout are urgently required for the improved well-being of stressed employees. One intervention gaining scientific traction is supplementation with nutritional interventions, particularly the B group vitamins. Methods: This study was developed to examine the effects of B group vitamins on workplace stress and mood variables with a sample of full-time employed older adults who subjectively report feeling stressed. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups clinical trial where 200 (N = 100/group) participants will be randomized to receive Blackmores(R) Executive B Stress Formula or placebo daily for a period of 6 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and 6 months post-randomization on workplace stress, cognitive, personality and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness), biochemical (assays to measure inflammation and safety) as well as genetic assessments (to assess stress processing) and neuroimaging measures (to investigate in vivo mechanisms of action of B vitamins). In addition to this pre- and post- supplementation testing, participants will also complete a battery of self-report questionnaires online to assess their stress and mood once a month for the duration of the study. The primary aim of the study is to investigate the effects of B vitamin supplementation on work related stress. The secondary aims are to explore the mechanisms underpinning any changes in mood or workplace stress due to the B vitamin intervention by examining relationships between cognitive, biological, neuroimaging and cardiovascular variables over 6 months. A subset of 40 participants (N = 20/group) will undergo neuroimaging at baseline and at 6 months using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in order to further explore in vivo mechanisms of action of B vitamins. The study represents a large scale intervention in which a B vitamin supplement is administered to a population experiencing chronic occupational stress. Consuming B vitamins may be an effective strategy to reduce psychological stress and related physiological factors which is simple and cost effective and which may lead to the improved health and quality of life of employees.Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR):ACTRN12613000294752
Background: It has been reported that 75% of stairway accidents occur while descending stairs. Using a cane can help to prevent older people and those with limited mobility from falling. However, studies have shown that two-thirds of older cane users use a cane that is longer than the recommended length, which may cause unnecessary muscular loads. This study aims to assess balance and muscular load in older people descending different height steps with different cane lengths. Methods: Nine participants (5 males and 4 females) aged over 65 years participated in this study. Cane length and stair height were independent variables. Electromyography signals were recorded from the biceps brachii of the arm that usually held the cane and from both gastrocnemius muscles. In addition, the center of pressure (CoP) was assessed as an indicator of balance in older people descending a step. Results: Descending from higher steps resulted in the use of greater arm and leg strength at the time of first foot contact. However, cane length did not affect any of the root mean square values. In addition, the CoP Stabilometric Parameters showed that mean distance, antero-posterior mean distance, total excursions, antero-posterior total excursions, mean velocity, and antero-posterior mean velocity were significantly affected by step height, but not by cane length. Conclusions: If cane length is within the currently suggested range, then it has little effect on the force load on the arm and legs when descending a step. Step height has a greater effect than cane length on the strategies used by older people to maintain stability.