Eucalyptus is the premier paper pulp, short rotation plantation species grown all over the world. Genetic improvement programs integrating molecular marker tools are in progress in many parts of the globe to increase the productivity. Whole genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the eucalypts paved way for introduction of molecular genetics and breeding in this genus. Different molecular characterization approaches have been used simultaneously in eucalypts, however, microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with their prolific characteristics could occupy a special niche in Eucalyptus genetic improvement. Further, highly informative SSRs were used for the clonal identity, genetic fidelity and in certification of breeder?s rights. Eucalyptus genetic linkage maps generated with microsatellite loci were used successfully to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for various economically important traits. Progressively more numbers of microsatellites are being linked to genes associated with adaptive and functional variations, therefore making their utility broader in genetic applications. Availability of common SSR markers across the species provides an opportunity to validate the expression of QTLs across variable genetic backgrounds and accurately compare the position of QTLs in other species. Recent evidences suggest that the presence of SSRs in micro RNAs of plant species play a role in the quantitative trait expression. Similar studies in eucalypts may provide new insights into the genetic architecture of transcript-level variations and post transcriptional gene regulation. This review on eucalypts microsatellites, highlights the availability and characteristics of genomic and eSSRs and their potential in genetic analysis of natural and breeding populations and also discusses the future prospects in population genetics and marker assisted selection.
Background: The primary objective was to enhance the content coverage of some of the pediatric self-report item banks for ages 8?17 years from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS?), and extend the range of precise measurement to higher levels of physical functioning. Methods: Data from 1,419 pediatric patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease, obesity, rehabilitation needs, rheumatic disease, and sickle cell disease were combined with item responses from the original standardization sample of 3,048 children to calibrate new items for the pediatric PROMIS Anger, Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms, Pain Interference, Fatigue, and physical functioning Upper Extremity and Mobility scales. Simultaneous or concurrent calibration using the graded item response theory model placed all of the items on the same scale. Results: Twenty-two of 28 potential new items were added across the seven scales. A recommended short form was proposed for the Anger scale, and the recommended short forms for the Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms scales were revised. Unfortunately, we were not particularly successful at extending the range of measurement for the physical functioning banks. Conclusions: The present study expanded PROMIS pediatric item banks to add new content and to increase the range of measurement. Using item response theory, the banks were revised and expanded without changing the underlying scale of measurement. For Anger, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, we successfully added new content that may render those banks more robust and flexible.
Background: It has been reported that valuation of health states that are close to death, such as the most severe health state, can be affected by health state valuation procedure, and their utility values are difficult to predict. We examined how the most severe health states of Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) and EuroQoL-5 dimension-3 level (EQ-5D-3L) were valued by the Singapore general population. Methods: Overall, 249 SF-6D and 42 EQ-5D-3L states were valued by two separate samples from the Singapore general population using the visual analogue scale (VAS) method. Ordinary least-square regression model was employed to explain deficit in the valuation of the most severe state using the health state descriptors. Results: A total of 1021 participants from the SF-6D sample and 1015 participants from the EQ-5D-3L sample were included in the analysis. We observed that 67% of the SF-6D participants and 74% of the EQ-5D-3L participants considered the most severe state worse than dead. The most severe state had mean VAS valuation scores more than 20?25 points lower than the adjacent states that are better by only one level in only one dimension. SF-6D VAS valuation score for the most severe state was 27 points and 12 points lower than expected according to the health state descriptors among the participants who considered the most severe state worse than dead and better than dead, respectively. Similar results were found for the EQ-5D-3L valuation. Conclusions: The most severe health state was valued lower than expected according to its descriptors.
Background: A range of policy initiatives have addressed inequalities in healthcare and health outcomes. Local pay-for-performance schemes for primary care have been advocated as means of enhancing clinical ownership of the quality agenda and better targeting local need compared with national schemes such as the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We investigated whether professionals? experience of a local scheme in one English National Health Service (NHS) former primary care trust (PCT) differed from that of the national QOF in relation to the goal of reducing inequalities. Methods: We conducted retrospective semi-structured interviews with primary care professionals implementing the scheme and those involved in its development. We purposively sampled practices with varying levels of population socio-economic deprivation and achievement. Interviews explored perceptions of the scheme and indicators, likely mechanisms of influence on practice, perceived benefits and harms, and how future schemes could be improved. We used a framework approach to analysis. Results: Thirty-eight professionals from 16 general practices and six professionals involved in developing local indicators participated. Our findings cover four themes: ownership, credibility of the indicators, influences on behaviour, and exacerbated tensions. We found little evidence that the scheme engendered any distinctive sense of ownership or experiences different from the national scheme. Although the indicators and their evidence base were seldom actively questioned, doubts were expressed about their focus on health promotion given that eventual benefits relied upon patient action and availability of local resources. Whilst practices serving more affluent populations reported status and patient benefit as motivators for participating in the scheme, those serving more deprived populations highlighted financial reward. The scheme exacerbated tensions between patient and professional consultation agendas, general practitioners benefitting directly from incentives and nurses who did much of the work, and practices serving more and less affluent populations which faced different challenges in achieving targets. Conclusions: The contentious nature of pay-for-performance was not necessarily reduced by local adaptation. Those developing future schemes should consider differential rewards and supportive resources for practices serving more deprived populations, and employing a wider range of levers to promote professional understanding and ownership of indicators.
Background: In recent years, several questionnaires have been developed for the assessment of foot health and its impact on quality of life. In order for these tools to be useful outcome measures in clinical trials, their ability to detect change over time (responsiveness) needs to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the responsiveness of two commonly-used questionnaires in older people with foot pain. Methods: Participants (n?=?59; 24 women and 35 men, mean age [SD] 82.3 [7.8] years) allocated to the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of extra-depth footwear compared to usual care completed the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) and Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) at baseline and 16?weeks. Responsiveness of the FHSQ subscales (pain, function, footwear and general foot health) and MFPDI subscales (pain, functional limitation and concern about appearance) was determined using (i) paired t-tests, (ii) Cohen?s d, (iii) the standardised response mean (SRM), and (iv) the Guyatt index. Results: Overall, the FHSQ pain subscale exhibited the highest responsiveness, as evidenced by a highly significant paired t-test (p <0.001), Cohen?s d =0.63 (medium effect size), SRM =0.50 (medium effect size) and Guyatt index =1.70 (huge effect size). The next most responsive measure was the FHSQ function subscale, as evidenced by a borderline paired t-test (p =0.050), Cohen?s d =0.37 (small effect size), SRM =0.26 (small effect size) and GI =1.22 (very large effect size). The FHSQ footwear, FHSQ general foot health and MFPDI pain, functional limitation and concern about appearance subscales demonstrated lower responsiveness, with negligible to medium effect sizes. Conclusion: The FHSQ pain and function subscales were most responsive to change in older people with foot pain receiving a footwear intervention. These findings provide useful information to guide researchers in selecting appropriate outcome measures for use in future clinical trials of foot disorders.
Background: Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a member of the aquaporin family of transmembrane channel proteins, is involved in water transport and cellular proliferation in various tumors. The objective of this study was to determine cellular localization of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in the ovarian tumors of chicken, a preclinical model for human ovarian tumor and to determine if AQP5 mRNA and protein expression levels in cancerous chicken ovaries and in ascites-derived chicken ovarian cancer (COVCAR) cell lines are different from normal ovaries and normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells, respectively. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the localization of AQP5-immunoreactive (ir) cells in normal and cancerous ovaries. To determine AQP5 mRNA and protein concentrations in cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines, quantitative real time PCR and Western blotting analysis were performed, respectively. Student?s t-test was performed to compare the levels of AQP5 mRNA or protein in cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines with that of normal ovaries and NOSE cells, respectively. Results: AQP5-ir cells were localized in granulosa and theca layers of normal ovarian follicles whereas cancerous ovaries showed AQP5 immunostaining in the surface epithelium, fibroblast cells of the stroma, and in the cells lining tumor cysts and acini. AQP5 mRNA concentration were significantly lesser while AQP5 protein concentrations were significantly greater in cancerous ovaries compared to that in normal ovaries (P?
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m3/day & 392 g BOD5/m3/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m3/day & 302 g BOD5/m3/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p <0.05) pollutant removal efficiencies due to its extensive root and mass growth rate (p <0.05) of the plant compared to Typha sp. The Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33???107 cfu/cm2) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.
Background: Population ageing fosters new models of care delivery for older people that are increasingly integrated into existing care systems. In the Netherlands, a primary-care based preventive home visitation programme has been developed for potentially frail community-dwelling older people (aged ?75?years), consisting of a comprehensive geriatric assessment during a home visit by a practice nurse followed by targeted interdisciplinary care and follow-up over time. A theory-based process evaluation was designed to examine (1) the extent to which the home visitation programme was implemented as planned and (2) the extent to which general practices successfully redesigned their care delivery. Methods: Using a mixed-methods approach, the focus was on fidelity (quality of implementation), dose delivered (completeness), dose received (exposure and satisfaction), reach (participation rate), recruitment, and context. Twenty-four general practices participated, of which 13 implemented the home visitation programme and 11 delivered usual care to older people. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews with practice nurses (PNs), general practitioners (GPs), and older people; feedback meetings with PNs; structured registration forms filled-out by PNs; and narrative descriptions of the recruitment procedures and registration of inclusion and drop-outs by members of the research team. Results: Fidelity of implementation was acceptable, but time constraints and inadequate reach (i.e., the relatively healthy older people participated) negatively influenced complete delivery of protocol elements, such as interdisciplinary cooperation and follow-up of older people over time. The home visitation programme was judged positively by PNs, GPs, and older people. Useful tools were offered to general practices for organising proactive geriatric care. Conclusions: The home visitation programme did not have major shortcomings in itself, but the delivery offered room for improvement. General practices received useful tools to redesign their care delivery from reactive towards proactive care, but perceived barriers require attention to allow for sustainability of the home visitation programme over time.
ObjectivesSeveral preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments have been published and widely used in different populations. However no consensus has emerged regarding the most appropriate instrument in therapeutic area of stable angina. This study compared and validated the psychometric properties of two generic preference-based instruments, the EQ-5D and SF-6D, among Chinese stable angina patients. Methods: Convergent validity of the EQ-5D and SF-6D was examined with eight a priori hypotheses from stable angina patients in conjunction with Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Responsiveness was compared using the effect size (ES), relative efficiency (RE) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Agreement between the EQ-5D and SF-6D was tested using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. Factors affecting utility difference were explored with multiple linear regression analysis. Results: In 411 patients (mean age 68.08???11.35), mean utility scores (SD) were 0.78 (0.15) for the EQ-5D and 0.68 (0.12) for the SF-6D. Validity was demonstrated by the moderate to strong correlation coefficients (Range: 0.368-0.594, P
Authorship guidelines have established criteria to guide author selection based on significance of contribution and helped to define associated responsibilities and accountabilities for the published findings. However, low awareness, variable interpretation, and inconsistent application of these guidelines can lead to confusion and a lack of transparency when recognizing those who merit authorship. This article describes a research project led by the Medical Publishing Insights and Practices (MPIP) Initiative to identify current challenges when determining authorship for industry-sponsored clinical trials and develop an improved approach to facilitate decision-making when recognizing authors from related publications. A total of 498 clinical investigators, journal editors, publication professionals and medical writers were surveyed to understand better how they would adjudicate challenging, real-world authorship case scenarios, determine the perceived frequency of each scenario and rate their confidence in the responses provided. Multiple rounds of discussions about these results with journal editors, clinical investigators and industry representatives led to the development of key recommendations intended to enhance transparency when determining authorship. These included forming a representative group to establish authorship criteria early in a trial, having all trial contributors agree to these criteria and documenting trial contributions to objectively determine who warrants an invitation to participate in the manuscript development process. The resulting Five-step Authorship Framework is designed to create a more standardized approach when determining authorship for clinical trial publications. Overall, these recommendations aim to facilitate more transparent authorship decisions and help readers better assess the credibility of results and perspectives of the authors for medical research more broadly.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/214.