Background: While there have been investigations into the reduced neck injury rate of wearing protective helmets, there is little information on its effects on normal kinaesthetic neck function. This study aims to quantify the kinaesthetic and movement effects of the American football helmet. Methods: Fifteen British Collegiate American football players (mean age 22.2, SD 1.9; BMI kg.m 2 26.3, SD 3.7) were age and size matched to 11 non-American football playing university students (mean age 22.5, SD 3.6; BMI 24.3, SD 3.3 kg.m 2 ). Both groups had their active cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy measured during neck flexion/extension using a modified cervical range of motion device and a similarly modified football helmet. Results: Wearing helmets significantly reduced active cervical range of motion in extension in both groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 Controls and American Footballers respectively). While both groups had similar repositioning when not wearing a helmet (flexion P = 0.99; extension P = 0.52), when wearing helmets, American football players appeared to be more accurate in relation to cervical kinaesthetic repositioning (ANOVA: P = 0.077: flexion effect size =0.84; extension effect size =0.38). Conclusions: Wearing American football helmets significantly reduces the active cervical range of motion in extension, along with a change in the neutral head position. American footballers have a greater accuracy in repositioning their head from flexion (potentially enhanced proprioception) when wearing a helmet. This finding might allow development of a simple objective test to help discern presence of minor concussive or cervical musculoskeletal injury on or off the field.
Background: Published data suggest that asthma is significantly under/misdiagnosed. The present community-based study performed in Italy aims at investigating the level of asthma under/misdiagnosis among patients referring to the General Practitioner (GP) for respiratory symptoms and undergoing Inhaled corticosteroids. Methods: A sub-analysis of a previously published observational cross-sectional study has been provided. It included subjects registered in the GP databases with at least three prescriptions of inhaled or nebulised corticosteroids during the 12 months preceding the start of the study. All subjects, independently of the diagnosis, were invited to visit their GP’s office for a standardised interview and to fill the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire. Results: The studies involved 540 GPs in most of the Italian regions and 2090 subjects (mean age 54.9 years, 54.1 % females) were enrolled. Among them 991 cases of physician-diagnosed asthma were observed while 1099 subjects received a diagnosis other than asthma (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic upper respiratory tract infections etc.). Among the lasts, the ECRHS questionnaire was suggestive for asthma diagnosis in 365 subjects (33.2 %). Conclusions: The data suggest that there is still a large under/misdiagnosis of asthma in the Italian primary care setting, despite the spread of GINA guidelines nearly 20 years before this study. A validated tool like the ECRHS questionnaire has detected a considerable proportion of potentially asthmatic patients who should be addressed to lung function assessment to confirm the diagnosis. Further educational efforts directed to the GPs are needed to improve their diagnosis of asthma (SAM104964).
Background: The aim is to study the safety of Angioembolization on long-term sexual function and quality of life. Methods: IRB approval was gained to review the prospectively collected trauma database as well as prospective questionnaires of patients at least 1 year out from pelvic fractures that occurred between 1996 and 2009. Surveys included the SF36v2, Female Sexual Function Index and the International Index of Erectile Function. Values for each domain were compared between patients treated with AE and 2:1 case-matched control patients as well as between the national norms. Values are presented as percentages or means with 95 % CI. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty Seven cases and 74 matched controls were identified. 42 patients completed the survey. There were 13 cases (12 males), and 29 controls (22 males). There was a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score) (32 vs 27; p = 0.048) in the cases, but no difference in pelvic AIS (Abbreviated Injury Severity Score) (3 vs 3). Both groups scored similarly in the SF36 in all domains, but the entire cohort scored lower than the national norms in the physical functioning (41.9 (37.8–46.0) vs50), role physical (40.9 (36.2–45.7) vs50), body pain 43.8 (40.7–46.9) vs50), role emotional 46.3 (42.8–49.8) vs50), and physical composite score (42.1 (38.0–46.3) vs50). All domains of the sexual function in both questionnaires showed significant impairment in our cohort compared with norms. Male cases had similar scores to the controls. Conclusion: Pelvic fractures portend a worse long-term QOL and sexual function than the general population. AE, however, does not have an additive affect to these indices.
Background: It has previously been reported that many research articles fail to fulfill important criteria for statistical analyses, but, to date, these reports have not focused on public health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of reporting and use of statistical methods in articles analyzing the effect of unemployment on health. Methods: Forty-one articles were identified and evaluated in terms of how they addressed 12 specified criteria. Results: For most of these criteria, the majority of articles were inadequate. These criteria were conformity with a linear gradient (100 % of the articles), validation of the statistical model (100 %), collinearity of independent variables (97 %), fitting procedure (93 %), goodness of fit test (78 %), selection of variables (68 % for the candidate model; 88 % for the final model), and interactions between independent variables (66 %). Fewer, but still alarmingly many articles, failed to fulfill the criteria coefficients presented in statistical models (48 %), coding of variables (34 %) and discussion of methodological concerns (24 %). There was a lack of explicit reporting of statistical significance/confidence intervals; 34 % of the articles only presented p-values as being above or below the significance level, and 42 % did not present confidence intervals. Events per variable was the only criterion met at an undoubtedly acceptable level (2.5 %). Conclusions: There were critical methodological shortcomings in the reviewed studies. It is difficult to obtain unbiased estimates, but there clearly needs to be some improvement in the quality of documentation on the use and performance of statistical methods. A suggestion here is that journals not only demand that articles fulfill the criteria within the STROBE statement, but that they include additional criteria to decrease the risk of incorrect conclusions being drawn.
IntroductionCardiac metastasis of urothelial carcinoma is a very rare but clinically important complication. Most cardiac metastases are asymptomatic; symptoms from cardiac metastasis were seen in advanced stage and many of these cases were reported to have a poor prognosis. So it is important to find asymptomatic cardiac metastasis and to start chemotherapy early in order to improve the patient’s prognosis.Case presentationA 73-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital because of a right ventricular tumor. He had a history of left ureteral cancer 9 years ago. In screening echocardiography for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, a low echogenic tumor was detected in his right ventricular apex, and characteristic ST segment elevation was detected in electrocardiography. An 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed abnormal uptake in his right ventricular apex tumor and prostate, and a biopsy of the prostatic tumor showed urothelial carcinoma cells. He received systemic gemcitabine, paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy for the urothelial carcinoma, and the cardiac tumor size was reduced temporarily. Finally, he died of multiple organ failure 16 months after his first admission, but his survival period was relatively longer than previous reports. Conclusions: We experienced a case of a metastatic cardiac tumor from urothelial carcinoma. We found asymptomatic cardiac metastasis by screening echocardiography and electrocardiography. Our patient received systemic chemotherapy and his survival period was relatively longer than previous reports. Electrocardiography and echocardiography may be useful to find asymptomatic cardiac metastasis of neoplasms.
Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the image levels of the distal femur affected the measurement of the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance. Methods: Thirty sets of computer tomography (CT) images and 30 sets of MR images of the knee were evaluated. The TT-TG distance was quantified at multiple image levels in 1.5-mm increments, covering the proximodistal range of the trochlear groove. The CT measurement was based on osseous landmarks; the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement was based on cartilaginous and osseous landmarks. Results: The average TT-TG distances measured with CT, with MRI based on cartilaginous landmarks, and with MRI based on osseous landmarks were 15.74 mm (SD 3.83 mm), 12.8 mm (SD 5.67 mm), and 12.36 mm (SD 5.58 mm), respectively. No significant difference was found across image levels in the CT measurement and the MRI measurement upon osseous landmarks (P = 0.64, P = 0.11); yet, the difference was significant in the MRI measurement upon cartilaginous landmarks (P < 0.01). Large deviation was found between levels in individual subjects in all the three sorts of measurement. The proximal levels were the most variable, while the mid levels were the least variable. Conclusions: Measurements of the TT-TG distance are not identical across the levels of the distal femur. Cautions should be taken when specific image slices were selected for evaluation.
Background: Research into the optimal treatment of fibrous dysplasia has been limited by the lack of an established classification system for the disease. The purposes of this study were to develop a radiographic classification for fibrous dysplasia of the proximal femur and to test this classification’s intra- and interobserver reliability as well as the effectiveness of our treatments. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of 227 femurs from 206 patients with fibrous dysplasia. The radiographs were evaluated in the coronal plane for neck-shaft angle, varus deformity in the proximal femoral shaft, and distal juxtaarticular valgus deformity. CT was evaluated in the axial plane for destruction of cortex. Reduction of bone strength was defined as the thickness of the remaining cortex less than 50 % of the original on axial CT. Two senior orthopedists evaluated each radiograph and CT twice at 8-week intervals. Intra- and interobserver reliability testing was performed using the kappa statistic. Treatments were assessed through mid-term follow-up. Results: The 227 femurs were classified into five reproducible types: type 1 (33 %), normal bone strength without angular deformity; type 2 (30 %), decreased bone strength without angular deformity; type 3 (12 %), isolated coxa vara with neck-shaft angle <120°; type 4 (11 %), isolated varus deformity in the proximal femoral shaft; and type 5 (14 %), coxa vara with varus deformity in the proximal femoral shaft. Intra- and interobserver kappa values were excellent, ranging from 0.85 to 0.88. Good clinical outcomes were achieved. Conclusions: This radiographic classification of fibrous dysplasia is reproducible and useful for describing and assessing this disease. The treatments based on this classification were effective.
Background: Although the inclusion of the HPV vaccine has been registered in Spain since 2007, vaccination rates are lower than expected. The patients wish to be vaccinated is heavily influenced by information they have received from many source. The Knowledge of primary health care professionals affects the information provided to patients and is fundamental in the decision making. The aim of this study is to assess the opinions of primary health care professionals on the vaccine against HPV and their knowledge about HPV infection and its links to with gynecological and oropharyngeal cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional study. A 19-item survey was drawn up. It included questions on basic aspects of HPV infection and marketed vaccines, personal opinion about the inclusion in the immunization schedules and their level of prescription and recommendation to patients in their clinical practice. From October 2013 to December 2013, 607 surveys were distributed among 20 primary health centers affiliated to the University Hospital 12 de Octubre. The results were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Results: One hundred sixty four successfully completed surveys were obtained for analysis. 89 % of the professionals knew about the relationship between HPV infection and cervical cancer, 57.3 % did not know any of the serotypes against which vaccines are targeted; 40.4 % believed that there is insufficient data to support the commercialization of the vaccines. Of these, 65.7 % argue that there is no data of its long-term effectiveness, 13.4 % that there is no data as to its side effects, 13.4 % believed that the cost effectiveness is not worthwhile. Conclusions: There is a strong controversy among health professionals regarding the marketing and inclusion of HPV vaccine in immunization schedules. However, the knowledge of the primary care health professionals on key aspects of infection and vaccine protection are insufficient. The training of professionals in vaccination, cervical pathology and HPV infection should be improved to provide objective information on the use as this vaccine for patients.
Background: The human gut microbiota interacts closely with human diet and physiology. To better understand the mechanisms behind this relationship, gut microbiome research relies on complementing human studies with manipulations of animal models, including non-human primates. However, due to unique aspects of human diet and physiology, it is likely that host-gut microbe interactions operate differently in humans and non-human primates. Results: Here, we show that the human microbiome reacts differently to a high-protein, high-fat Western diet than that of a model primate, the African green monkey, or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Specifically, humans exhibit increased relative abundance of Firmicutes and reduced relative abundance of Prevotella on a Western diet while vervets show the opposite pattern. Predictive metagenomics demonstrate an increased relative abundance of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the microbiome of only humans consuming a Western diet. Conclusions: These results suggest that the human gut microbiota has unique properties that are a result of changes in human diet and physiology across evolution or that may have contributed to the evolution of human physiology. Therefore, the role of animal models for understanding the relationship between the human gut microbiota and host metabolism must be re-focused.
IntroductionPatients admitted to the intensive care unit often develop hyperglycaemia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully described. The incretin effect is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and critical illness have phenotypical similarities, such as hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 on glycaemia in critically ill patients, a phenomenon also seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we hypothesised that the incretin effect, which is mediated by the incretin hormones GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is impaired in critically ill patients. Methods: The incretin effect (i.e., the relative difference between the insulin response to oral and intravenous glucose administration) was investigated in a cross-sectional case–control study. Eight critically ill patients without diabetes admitted to a mixed intensive care unit and eight healthy control subjects without diabetes, matched at group level by age, sex and body mass index, were included in the study. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the next day to mimic the blood glucose profile from the OGTT. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide and plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, glucagon and proinflammatory cytokines were measured intermittently. The incretin effect was calculated as the increase in insulin secretion during oral versus intravenous glucose administration in six patients. The groups were compared using either Student’s t test or a mixed model of repeated measurements. Results: Blood glucose levels were matched between the OGTT and the IVGI in both groups. Compared with control subjects, proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, were higher in patients than in control subjects. The endogenous response of GIP and glucagon, but not GLP-1, to the OGTT was greater in patients. The insulin response to the OGTT did not differ between groups, whereas the insulin response to the IVGI was higher in patients. Consequently, the calculated incretin effect was lower in patients (23 vs. 57 %, p = 0.003). Conclusions: In critically ill patients, the incretin effect was reduced. This resembles previous findings in patients with type 2 diabetes.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01347801. Registered on 2 May 2011.