Notizie da 5 fonti

23 gen 2015 17:00

Researchers generated an electron beam with very high orbital angular momentum—potentially good for atomic-scale images of the magnetism in materials. Published Fri Jan 23, 2015

22 gen 2015 17:00

The flow of hybrid electron-photon states through a black-hole-like “acoustic horizon” may produce an observable signature of Hawking radiation. Published Thu Jan 22, 2015

21 gen 2015 17:00

A theoretical study outlines the best strategies for identifying weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in dark matter detectors. Published Wed Jan 21, 2015

20 gen 2015 17:00

An atom’s walk in an optical lattice is used to test a key principle of quantum physics. Published Tue Jan 20, 2015

16 gen 2015 17:00

A simple model of heart tissue that represents the architecture of cell-cell communication more realistically than previous models spontaneously develops faulty electrical waves that mimic a dangerous heart condition. Published Fri Jan 16, 2015

16 gen 2015 02:00

A point spread function (PSF) for the blurring component in positron emission tomography (PET) is studied. The PSF matrix is derived from the single photon incidence response function. A statistical iterative reconstruction (IR) method based on the system matrix containing the PSF is developed. More specifically, the gamma photon incidence upon a crystal array is simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and then the single photon incidence response functions are calculated. Subsequently, the single photon incidence response functions are used to compute the coincidence blurring factor according to the physical process of PET coincidence detection. Through weighting the ordinary system matrix response by the coincidence blurring factors, the IR system matrix containing the PSF is finally established. By using this system matrix, the image is reconstructed by an ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed system matrix ...

16 gen 2015 02:00

The residual symmetries of the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) equations are obtained by the truncated Painlevé analysis. The residual symmetries for the AKNS equations are proved to be nonlocal and the nonlocal residual symmetries are extended to the local Lie point symmetries of a prolonged AKNS system. The local Lie point symmetries of the prolonged AKNS equations are composed of the residual symmetries and the standard Lie point symmetries, which suggests that the residual symmetry method is a useful complement to the classical Lie group theory. The calculation on the symmetries shows that the enlarged equations are invariant under the scaling transformations, the space–time translations, and the shift translations. Three types of similarity solutions and the reduction equations are demonstrated. Furthermore, several types of exact solutions for the AKNS equations are obtained with the help of the symmetry method and the Bäcklund transformations between the AKNS equations a...

16 gen 2015 02:00

A four-body distorted-wave approximation is applied for theoretical analysis of the fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for proton-impact single ionization of helium atoms in their ground states. The nine-dimensional integrals for the partial amplitudes are analytically reduced to closed-form expressions or some one-dimensional integrals which can be easily calculated numerically. Calculations are performed in the scattering and perpendicular planes. The influence of the target static electron correlations on the process is investigated using a number of different bound-state wave functions for the ground state of the helium targets. An illustrative computation is performed for 75-keV proton-helium collisions and the obtained results are compared with experimental data and other theoretical predictions. Although for small momentum transfers, the comparison shows a reasonable agreement with experiments in the scattering and perpendicular planes, some significant discrepancies...

16 gen 2015 02:00

With converged shock wave, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a preferable way to crush human calculi because of its advantages of efficiency and non-intrusion. Nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to illustrate the acoustic wave propagation for transducers with a wide aperture angle. To predict the acoustic field distribution precisely, boundary conditions are obtained for the SBE model of the monochromatic wave when the source is located on the focus of an ESWL transducer. Numerical results of the monochromatic wave propagation in water are analyzed and the influences of half-angle, fundamental frequency, and initial pressure are investigated. According to our results, with optimization of these factors, the pressure focal gain of ESWL can be enhanced and the effectiveness of treatment can be improved.

16 gen 2015 02:00

GaSb p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with an atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric and a self-aligned Si-implanted source/drain are experimentally demonstrated. Temperature dependent electrical characteristics are investigated. Different electrical behaviors are observed in two temperature regions, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is found that the reverse-bias pn junction leakage of the drain/substrate is the main component of the off-state drain leakage current, which is generation-current dominated in the low temperature regions and is diffusion-current dominated in the high temperature regions. Methods to further reduce the off-state drain leakage current are given.

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