Notizie da 9 fonti
Emily Martin Current Anthropology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page S000, Ahead of Print.
The reconstruction of diet and subsistence strategies is integral in understanding early human colonizations and cultural adaptations, especially in the Arctic—one of the last areas of North America to be permanently inhabited. However, evidence for early subsistence practices in Western Alaska varies, particularly with regards to the emergence, importance, and intensity of sea mammal hunting. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from permafrost-preserved human hair from two new prehistoric sites in Western Alaska, providing a direct measure of diet. The isotope evidence indicates a heavy reliance on sea mammal protein among the earlier Norton-period group (1,750 ± 40 cal BP), confirming that the complex hunting technologies required to intensively exploit these animals were most likely already in place in this region by at least the beginning of 1st millennium AD. In contrast, analysis of the more recent Thule-period hair samples (650 ± 40 cal BP; 570 ± 30 cal BP) reveals a more mixed diet, including terrestrial animal protein. Sequential isotope analysis of two longer human hair locks indicates seasonal differences in diet in a single Norton-period individual but demonstrates little dietary variation in a Thule-period individual. These analyses provide direct evidence for dietary differences among Alaska's early Eskimo groups and confirm the antiquity of specialized sea mammal hunting and procurement technologies. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of human adaptation to maritime and high-latitude environments, and the geographical and temporal complexity in early Arctic subsistence. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The relationship between the “individualism-collectivism” and the serotonin transporter functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), suggested in the previous reports, was tested in Native South Amerindian populations. A total of 170 individuals from 21 populations were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR alleles. For comparative purposes, these populations were classified as individualistic (recent history of hunter–gathering) or collectivistic (agriculturalists). These two groups showed an almost identical S allele frequency (75 and 76%, respectively). The analysis of molecular variance showed no structural differences between them. Behavioral typologies like those suggested by JY Chiao and KD Blizinsky (Proc R Soc B 277 () 529–537) are always a simplification of complex phenomena and should be regarded with caution. In addition, classification of a whole nation in the individualist/collectivist dichotomy is controversial. The focus on modes of subsistence in preindustrial societies, as was tested here, may be a good alternative although the postulated association between the 5-HTTLPR S allele and the collectivist societies was not confirmed. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The absence of a midtarsal break has long been regarded as a derived feature of the human foot. Humans possess a rigid midfoot that acts as an efficient lever during the propulsive phase of bipedal gait. Non-human primates, in contrast, have a more mobile midfoot that is adaptive for tree climbing. Here, we report plantar pressure and video evidence that a small percentage of modern humans (n = 32/398) possess both elevated lateral midfoot pressures and even exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion characteristic of a midtarsal break. Those humans with a midtarsal break had on average a significantly flatter foot than those without. Midtarsal breakers also had significantly more medial weight transfer (pronation) during the stance phase of gait than those without this midfoot mobility. These data are in accordance with Elftman (Clin Orthop 16 (1960) 41–45) who suggested that pronation aligns the axes of the transverse tarsal joint, permitting elevated midfoot mobility.
Charles Golden and Andrew K. Scherer Current Anthropology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 000, Ahead of Print.
The mortuary context of Mound 72 at the Cahokia site is one of the most unusual ever described in prehistoric North America. Previous skeletal analyses suggested that four large mass graves within the mound contained only female skeletons. However, these findings were complicated by extremely poor bone preservation that limited the number of skeletal observations that could be made. Furthermore, most skeletons were aged in the 15–25 year range, a time when sexually dimorphic bony traits may still be developing. In this study, dental remains were used to examine sex in the four presumably all-female mass graves in Mound 72. Additional sources of information, including the original field/laboratory notes and new sexing data based on modern standards, were gathered to fully evaluate the dental estimates. Initially, discriminant function analysis was performed on odontometrics using the original Mound 72 sex assignment. Inconsistent results indicated that some of the skeletons may have been misclassified in the original analyses. To overcome this issue, discriminant function equations were generated using a large pooled skeletal sample from two sites in close temporal and geographic proximity to Cahokia. Application of the equations to Mound 72 revealed that each of the four mass burial groups contained individuals classified as male. These assignments were checked against the skeletal remains and the original field/laboratory notes. Discussion centers on how the results affect previous archaeological interpretations as well as the methodological considerations associated with this study. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Review by: Brian D. Haley Current Anthropology, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 391-393, June 2013.
Review by: Catherine E. Bolten Current Anthropology, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 393-394, June 2013.
Review by: Siobhan M. Hart Current Anthropology, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 390-391, June 2013.
Review by: Sean S. Downey Current Anthropology, Volume 54, Issue 3, Page 394-396, June 2013.